Stara industrijska zona na Tamišu – Old Industrial Zone at Tamiš

Prostorna celina starih saobraćajnih i industrijskih postrojenja na Tamišu

Pančevo je tradicionalno zanatski i industrijski grad. Pored aero-zagađenja i drugih posledica koje imaju industrijski gradovi, Pančevo ima uslove i potencijal da postane reprezentativni nacionalni i regionalni predstavnik industrijskog i saobraćajnog nasleđa i tehničke kulture. Osnovu za ovu ambicioznu ideju predstavljaju celina prelepih starih saobraćajnih i industrijskih postrojenja na obali Tamiša i strateška industrija u južnoj industrijskoj zoni. Stari fabrički obnovljeni objekti na Tamišu postali bi prostori za smeštaj reprezentativnog industrijskog i tehničkog muzeja ili centra za dokumentovanje proučavanje i izlaganje stare industrije (pivarstvo, svilarstvo, rečni saobraćaj, železnica), industrije 20. veka (industrija stakla, aviona, petrohemijski i rafinerijski) i savremenih tehnologija u 21. veku. Linija duž Trga mučenika i keja Radoja Dakića, koja prati tok Tamiša predstavljala bi liniju povezivanja sedam naznačajnijih starih fabrika i saobraćajnih kompleksa i gradski itinerer, šetnu edkativnu stazu, sa izuzetnim ambijentalnim i spomeničkim svojstvima.

Spatial whole of transportation and industrial buildings at the Tamiš riverside

Pančevo is a traditional crafts and industrial city. In addition to air pollution and other consequences that have industrial cities, Pančevo has conditions and potentials to become a national and regional representative of the industrial and traffic heritage and technical culture. The basis for this ambitious idea ​​is on beautiful old traffic and industrial plants on the bank of Tamiš and strategic industry in the southern industrial zone. Old renovated factory buildings would become spaces to accommodate a representative industrial and technical museum or center for the documentation, research and exhibition of old industries (brewery, silk production, water transport, railways), the industry of the 20th century (industry of glass, airplanes, petrochemical and oil industry) and modern technologies of the 21st century. The line along the Trg mučenika and Kej Radoja Dakića, which follows the course of the Tamiš, would represent a line linking seven most significant old factories and transport complexes and city itinerary, walking educative track, with an exceptional ambiance and monumental properties.

 

 

Pančevo obiluje objektima industrijskog nasleđa koji predstavljaju nacionalni reprezent u ovoj oblasti kulturne ponude. Država je sve objekte industrijskog nasleđa na obali Tamiša zaštitila u okviru prostorne celine Starog gradskog jezgra. Najbrojniji i najznačajniji primeri industrijskog nasleđa raspoređeni su duž obale Tamiša. Na potezu od Kula svetilja, podignutih 1909. godine na Ušću, pa do drumskog mosta izgrađenog dve i po decenije kasnije, postojali su mnogi industrijski pogoni, skladišta, saobraćajni objekti, pristanište, što je priobalju davalo izgled svojevrsne industrijske i trgovačke zone. Kafane, svratišta i kupleraji činili su ovaj deo grada veselim u svako doba dana i noći. Tamiš je bio plovna reka sa veoma živim rečnim saobraćajem, dok je u hladnim danima postajao veliki zimovnik za brodove. Između svetskih ratova tu se nalazilo Fernbahovo brodogradilište. Nedaleko odatle krajem 19. veka je podignuto zdanje Mađarske kraljevske predionice svile, koju svi Pančevci zovu Svilara.

Veliki žitni magacin na Tamišu se danas koristi za povremene sajamske manifestacije i izložbe. Ova čvrsta moćna struktura obeležiće uskoro tri veka postojanja. U narodu je poznat kao “Crveni magacin”. U neposrednoj blizini Pristaništa, postojali su Solara, magacin soli i dva velika žitna magacina. Porušeni su da bi na njihovom mestu bile sagrađene stambene zgrade. Međutim, vodotoranj između njih je sačuvan. Na sledećem uglu, oronula i delom oštećena nakon požara 2005. godine, još uvek stoji Stara Vajfertova pivara, osnovana 1722. godine. Sredinom 19. veka porodica Vajfert je preuzela Pivaru i za kratko vreme od nje načinila jedno od najznačajnijih preduzeća u ovom delu sveta. Ukoso od Pivare, neposredno pred izbijanje Drugog svetskog rata, podignut je Silos, a sa njegove druge strane nalazi se železnička stanica “Pančevo”. Pruga koja je povezivala nabrojane privredne objekte u neposrednoj blizini Tamiša uklonjena je pre četvrt veka, otprilike u isto vreme kada je regulisan kej. Poslednji u nizu je Provijant magacin koji se nalazi iza današnje zgrade DDOR-a.

Od ostalih značajnih objekata industrijskog nasleđa koji nisu u zoni duž Tamiša treba izdvojiti Staklaru – stari deo, Gornji i Donji mlin i “Slavinu” sa pivnicom, divan i nedovoljno iskorišćen prostor. Dva udruženja danas neguju tradiciju tehničkog nasleđa: Klub ljubitelja železnice u zgradi Stare železničke stance Pančevo, sa dva vagona i lokomotivom serije 62-086 i Muzej pivarstva Đorđe Vajfert, u zgradi Stare pivare, čiji su vlasnici u prošlosti bili Đorđe Vajfert i njegov otac Ignac Vajfert.

Pančevo has numerous industrial sites which are nationally representative of this type of heritage. All of the industrial heritage facilities found at the Pančevo riverside are under state protection, within the Old town core zone. From the mouth of the river, where the Lighthouses were built in 1909 to the car bridge built 20 years later, there was a large number of industrial facilities, storages, transportation facilities, port facilities, providing the riverside with a distinct look of an industrial/trading zone. Taverns, hotels and brothels gave a joyful liveliness to the district, day and night. The Tamiš was a navigable river with a very vivid water transportation activity, while in the winter season there was a large winter harbour for ships and boats. Between the two world wars, there was also the Ferbach Shipyard. Not far from the shipyard, a Hungarian royal silk spinning mill was built, also called the Silk Factory.

The big grain storage at the Tamiš riverside is occasionally used as exhibition space. This robust, powerful structure has been standing for over three centuries. It is also known as the “Red Depot”. Close to the port, there was also a salt storage and two big grain storehouses. They were both pulled down to allow for construction of residential buildings, but the water tower that once stood between them remained. At the next corner, there is the Weifert Brewery from 1722, partly damaged in 2005 fire. In mid-19th century, the Weifert family bought the Brewery and made it one of the most significant industrial enterprises in this part of the world. Silos were built across from the Brewery, just before the onset of the WW2 as well as the Pančevo Railway Station. The railroad connecting these industrial facilities was removed a quarter of a century ago, coinciding with the regulation and arrangement of the Quay. The last in the line of industrial structures is the Provisions Storehouse, which stands behind the DDOR building today.

Other important industrial heritage structures which were not built directly at the Tamiš riverside, are the Glass Factory – old site, the Upper and Lower Mill and “Slavina” with a beer cellar – a beautiful and underused space. A Railway Museum exhibit placed at the City Quay, next to the Old Railway Station, consisting of a locomotive and two carriages. The steam locomotive 62-086, is an exhibit of the Belgrade Railway Museum. The set up is protected as a monument of technical culture. Maintained by the Pančevo Club of Railways Fans. Brewery Museum is located  in the oldest part of the town, at the site of the Old Brewery once owned by George Weifert and his father Ignaz.

 

 

Najstariji deo grada se razvio oko nekadašnje tvrđave. Tamiš je do druge polovine 19. veka dodirivao najužu gradsku zonu, a na obali reke su nikli industrijski objekti, magacini i skladišta.

Pred kraj 19. veka železnica dolazi do samog centra grada. Regulisano i ispravljeno korito Tamiša premešteno je stotinak metara dalje, da bi slobodan prostor zauzeli koloseci železničke stanice.

U drugoj polovini 20. veka, ovaj deo grada gubi privredni karakter i postaje isključivo rezidencijalni. Železnica se ukida, a obale Tamiša sve više koriste šetači, rekreativci i ribolovci. Novi stambeni blokovi visoke spratnosti bitno menjaju vertikalnu siluetu grada koju su do tada činili crkveni tornjevi i kule industrijskih pogona.

The oldest part of the city developed near and around the old fort. Until the second half of the 19th century, the town core was back to back with the Tamiš river, where numerous industrial and storage facilities were built.

At the end of the 19th century, the railway reached the town centre. The bed of the Tamiš river was corrected and removed about a hundred meters so that the railway tracks could be placed by the river.

In the second half of the 20th century, this part of the city lost its predominantly economic character to residential purposes. The railway was displaced and the Tamiš riverside began to be used by residents mostly for recreation, strolls and fishing. New residential high rise buildings changed the town skyline considerably, since it used to feature only church spires and towers of industrial facilities.

 

Urbani razvoj delova Pančeva uz Tamiš

Urban development of Pančevo adjacent to the Tamiš riverbank

Gradski blok sa Franjevačkim samostanom na temeljima nekadašnjeg utvrđenja

Urban block with Franciscan monastery on funds of the former fortress

 

 

“Stara industrijska zona Pančeva” proteže se u dužini od 3 km, uz levu obalu reke Tamiš, do ušća Tamiša u Dunav, 15 km severoistočno od Beograda, glavnog grada Srbije. Deo je urbanog tkiva Pančeva, u neposrednoj blizini sadašnjeg centra grada. Sa druge, desne strane reke Tamiš, nalazi se Gradska šuma. Geografski koncept pre svega, a onda i demografski, socijalni, politički pa i ekološki – na ušću dvaju reka, na raskrsnici puteva, na granici Panonske nizije i brdovitog Balkana, na granici carstava, u sred jugoistočne Evrope – uzrok su razvoja Pančeva kao značajnog trgovačkog, industrijskog, saobraćajnog i kulturnog čvorišta.
U ovakvom, prirodnom i istorijskom okruženju zatičemo – najstariju fabriku na Balkanu, Vajfertovu Pivaru s početka 18 veka, zatim jedinstvene Svetionike na Dunavu, stubove od livenog gvožđa i rešetkastu konstrukciju u staroj Svilari, godinu dana pre nego što je rešetkasta konstrukcija dostigla svoje priznanje na EXPO 1900 u Parizu, kao i značajnu drvenu konstrukciju Crvenog magacina.
Ovi jedinstveni, arhitektonski i funkcionalno značajni industrijski objekti, simboli su vremena snažne ekspanzije razvoja Pančeva, ideje čija je realizacija ovaj grad postavila u centar regije i šire, uvrstila ga u red značajnih suvozemnih i rečnih raskrsnica naše zemlje. Materijalni ostaci stare industrijske zone u Pančevu ne samo da su svedoci ovih obimnih i složenih radova, već i na veoma živ i efektan način ilustruju razvoj Pančeva.

(iz “Stara industrijska zona Pančeva” – Preliminarna tehnička procena arhitektonskog i arheološkog nasleđa jugoistočne Evrope, obradila Tamara Tasić)

The “Old industrial area in Pančevo” spreads along the left bank of the Tamiš River and is 3 km long. It ends at the confluence of the Tamiš and the Danube, 15 km north-east from Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is a part of urban Pančevo and near the centre of the town. The city forest is located on the opposite, right bank of the river.
The causes of the development of Pančevo as an important trade, industrial, transportation and cultural centre are numerous: its geographic position, demographic structure, social, political and ecological concept – it is on the confluence of rivers, the intersection of roads, the border of Pannonian plain and the mountainous Balkans, on the border of empires, in the middle of Southeast Europe.
In this natural and historical surrounding, is the oldest factory on the Balkan Peninsula, the Weifert Brewery dating from the beginning of the 18th century. Then, there are unique Lighthouses on the Danube River, iron, and lattice construction in the old Silkworm farm, dating from the year before the lattice construction technique was recognized at the Paris EXPO in 1900, as well as an important wooden construction in the Red Warehouse.
These unique, functionally and architecturally important objects are the symbols of the time when Pancevo fully flourished, and was placed among important land and river crossroads of our country. Material remains of the old industrial area in Pančevo are not only the proof of those extensive and complex works, but also illustrate the development of Pančevo in a spectacular way.

(from “The old industrial area of Pančevo” – Preliminary technical assessment of the Architectural and Archeological heritage in South East Europe, prepared by Tamara Tasić)